non volatile memory meaning

Non-volatile memory (NVMe) is a semiconductor technology that does not require a continuous power supply to retain the data or program code stored in a computing device. Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory, flash memory, ferroelectric RAM (F-RAM), most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. N    Information and translations of non-volatile memory in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. 0. Thinfilm successfully demonstrated roll-to-roll printed memories in 2009. Non-volatile memory (NVM) is a type of computer memory that has the capability to hold saved data even if the power is turned off. Glossary of electrical engineering terms . Flash memory is a solid-state chip that maintains stored data without any external power source. Non-Volatile Memory: It is the type of memory in which data or information is … An EPROM is an erasable ROM that can be changed more than once. Unlike volatile memory, it does not require an electric charge to maintain the storage state. Unlike volatile memory, it does not need its data to be continually refreshed. Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory (see ROM), flash memory, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. adj. Define non-volatile memory. O    Translations. For other uses, see, Computer memory that does not lose its contents after being turned off, metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors, "i-NVMM: Securing non-volatile memory on the fly", "Crocus Technology | Magnetic Sensors | TMR Sensors", "Optical Blu-ray Jukeboxes and Libraries Systems for Archiving Storage - Kintronics", Thinfilm and InkTec awarded IDTechEx' Technical Development Manufacturing Award, PolyIC, ThinFilm announce pilot of volume printed plastic memories, All set for high-volume production of printed memories, "NVDIMM – Changes are Here, So What's Next? Volatile memory contrasts with non-volatile memory, which does not lose content when power is lost. Examples of how to use “non-volatile memory” in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs What does memory-types mean? The 6 Most Amazing AI Advances in Agriculture. What is the difference between a virtual machine and a container? [2] The most widely used form of primary storage today is a volatile form of random access memory (RAM), meaning that when the computer is shut down, anything contained in RAM is lost. Tech Career Pivot: Where the Jobs Are (and Aren’t), Write For Techopedia: A New Challenge is Waiting For You, Machine Learning: 4 Business Adoption Roadblocks, Deep Learning: How Enterprises Can Avoid Deployment Failure. Thus, volatile memory is temporary and nonvolatile memory is permanent. non-volatile memory. In other words, when the power source to which the memory is connected is shut off, the memory does not lose the information it has. FeFET memory uses a transistor with ferroelectric material to permanently retain state. However, volatile memory tends to be more expensive per unit size. The first generation of MRAM, such as Everspin Technologies' 4 Mbit, utilized field-induced writing. Solid-state drives are one of the latest forms of non-volatile memory. See F-RAM . Volatile Memory: Non-Volatile Memory: Definition: Volatile Memory is the type of computer memory that is temporary in nature. Volatile memory, in contrast to non-volatile memory, is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information; it retains its contents while powered on but when the power is interrupted, the stored data is quickly lost. Volatile memory is memory that loses its contents when the computer or hardware device loses power. Z, Copyright © 2021 Techopedia Inc. - This type of memory is typically used for long-term, secondary storage. With regard to computer storage, including hard drives, solid ... solid state drives (SSDs) and USB drives, it means that the content is not lost when the power is turned off. Volatile Meaning. An electrically erasable programmable read-only memory EEPROM uses voltage to erase memory. The type of memory which doesn’t volatile or lose the data contained in it after the computer is shut down (power off) is known as Non-volatile memory. [9][10], Hard disk drives use a rotating magnetic disk to store data; access time is longer than for semiconductor memory, but cost per stored data bit is very low, and they provide random access to any location on the disk. However, writing new data to an EPROM requires a special programmer circuit. What is peer-to-peer content distribution? NVRAM refers to non-volatile random-access memory, which is a kind of random-access memory . Non -volatile memory is typically used for the task of secondary storage, or long-term persistent storage. Memory that loses its contents when the power is turned off. Definition Nonvolatile (NV) RAM is memory which retains its stored value when power is removed. Data is stored by use of floating-gate transistors which require special operating voltages to trap or release electric charge on an insulated control gate to store information. However, most forms of non-volatile memory have limitations that make them unsuitable for use as primary storage. Non-volatile memory (NVM) is a type of computer memory that can hold its data even when the computer’s power is turned off. Non-volatile memory is typically used for the task of secondary storage or long-term persistent storage. Optical discs store data by altering a pigment layer on a plastic disk, and are similarly random access. 5 Common Myths About Virtual Reality, Busted! optical jukebox) were used to retrieve and mount disks under direct program control.[11][12][13]. Typically, non-volatile memory costs more, provides lower performance, or has a limited lifetime compared to volatile random access memory. Camera memory cards (CompactFlash, SD, SmartMedia, etc.) Spanish / Español: memoria f permanente. It is different from dynamic random-access memory ( DRAM ) and static random-access memory ( SRAM ) that only maintain data when the power is applied. Definition of non-volatile storage in the AudioEnglish.org Dictionary. Q    Make the Right Choice for Your Needs. Cypress Semiconductor's F-RAM is a non-volatile memory that uses a ferroelectric capacitor. With this memory, your computer will retain data without applied power. It is commonly used for secondary storage or long-term consistent storage. hard disk drives, floppy disks, and magnetic tape), optical discs, and early computer storage methods such as paper tape and punched cards.[1]. Non-volatile data storage can be classified into two types: Mechanically addressed systems make use of a contact structure to write and read on a selected storage medium. Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retain stored information even after power is removed. Big Data and 5G: Where Does This Intersection Lead? MRAM has an especially promising future as it seeks to encompass all the desirable features of the other popular types of memory (non-volatility, infinite endurance, high-speed reading/writing, low cost). Due to the PZT crystal maintaining polarity, F-RAM retains its data memory when power is shut off or interrupted. Non-volatile memory typically refers to storage in semiconductor memory chips, which store data in floating-gate memory cells consisting of floating-gate MOSFETs (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors), including flash memory storage such as NAND flash and solid-state drives (SSD), and ROM chips such as EPROM (erasable programmable ROM) and EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable ROM). See non-volatile memory. What does non-volatile mean? Memory chips that hold their content without power being applied. It can also be classified as traditional non-volatile disk storage. Since the access time depends on the physical location of the data on the device, mechanically addressed systems may be sequential access. Thinfilm produces rewriteable non-volatile organic ferroelectric memory based on ferroelectric polymers. The FRAMs are designed to meet the growing demand for non-volatile memory that provides high-speed operation, low power consumption and high endurance for office equipment (including printers, copier machines and portable information devices) and appliances (such … However, most forms of non-volatile memory have limitations that make them unsuitable for use as primary storage. Non-volatile memory is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered. Non-volatile memory is typically used for the task of secondary storage, or long-term persistent storage. The most widely used form of primary storage today is a volatile form of random access memory, meaning that when the computer is shut down, anything contained in RAM is lost. NAND flash reads faster than it writes, quickly transferring whole pages of data. The programming is permanent and further changes require replacement of the device. However, volatile memory tends to be more expensive per unit size. Due to this crystal structure and how it is influenced, F-RAM offers distinct properties from other nonvolatile memory options, including extremely high, although not infinite, endurance (exceeding 1016 read/write cycles for 3.3 V devices), ultra low power consumption (since F-RAM does not require a charge pump like other non-volatile memories), single-cycle write speeds, and gamma radiation tolerance. It was the first non-volatile memory to use CMOS fabrication, the industry standard for chips. This gives a non-volatile memory comparable to ferroelectric RAM technologies and offer the same functionality as flash memory. Thus, volatile memory is temporary and nonvolatile memory is permanent. Non-Volatile Memory. More of your questions answered by our Experts. The second generation is developed mainly through two approaches: Thermal-assisted switching (TAS)[7] which is being developed by Crocus Technology, and Spin-transfer torque (STT) which Crocus, Hynix, IBM, and several other companies are developing.[when?][8]. [14][15][16] In Thinfilm's organic memory the ferroelectric polymer is sandwiched between two sets of electrodes in a passive matrix. M    Computer RAM is an example of volatile memory. Y    ROM is a best example. Magnetoresistive RAM is one of the newest approaches to non-volatile memory and stores data in magnetic storage elements called magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ's). [17] This application of non-volatile memory presents security challenges. Volatile memory is memory that requires electric current to retain data.When the power is turned off, all data is erased. It is the type of memory used in ROM memory chips such as those holding a PC's bootloader program. Electrically addressed systems are categorized based on the write mechanism. Smart Data Management in a Post-Pandemic World. This memory module connects to the memory slot on a computer motherboard. 2. Join nearly 200,000 subscribers who receive actionable tech insights from Techopedia. The most common type of volatile memory is random-access memory, or RAM. Non-volatile memory (NVM) is a type of memory storage that holds data when the power is turned off on a computer or device. In contrast, volatile memory needs constant power in order to retain data. Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory, flash memory, ferroelectric RAM, most types of magnetic computer storage devices, optical discs, and early computer storage methods such as paper tape and punched cards. Straight From the Programming Experts: What Functional Programming Language Is Best to Learn Now? Definition Nonvolatile (NV) RAM is memory which retains its stored value when power is removed. Non-volatile data storage can be categorized into electrically addressed systems (read-only memory) and mechanically addressed systems (hard disks, optical disc, magnetic tape, holographic memory, and such). nonvolatile synonyms, nonvolatile pronunciation, nonvolatile translation, English dictionary definition of nonvolatile. Non-volatile Memory (NVM), is a new memory technology that provides much lower latency and higher throughput than flash, but lower performance than DRAM, for a much lower cost than DRAM. All RAM except the CMOS RAM used for the BIOS is volatile. It’s much slower than main memory, but it stores more data. Non-volatile memory (NVM) is a type of computer memory that can hold its data even when the computer’s power is turned off. Non-volatile memory is highly popular among digital media; it is widely used in memory chips for USB memory sticks and digital cameras. Each crossing of metal lines is a ferroelectric capacitor and defines a memory cell. Research paper about perspective usage of magnetic photoconductors in magneto-optical data storage. It is the type of memory used in ROM memory chips such … hard disks, floppy discs and magnetic tape), optical discs, and early computer storage methods such as paper tape and punched cards. A type of memory card that retains data when power is turned off. Additionally, applications that use asynchronous data storage cannot use the Buffered EEPROM block . Non-volatile memory has a continuous source of power and does not need to have its memory content periodically refreshed. 1. Computers Of or relating to memory whose data is retained when the memory's power is interrupted. It stores the data inside it only until the power is supplied. It is a close relative to the EEPROM; it differs in that erase operations must be done on a block basis and capacity is substantially larger than that of an EEPROM. Non-volatile memory is typically used for the task of secondary storage, or long-term persistent storage. The global Non-Volatile Dual In-Line Memory Module (NVDIMM) market size is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025, with a … non-volatile storage synonyms, non-volatile storage pronunciation, non-volatile storage translation, English dictionary definition of non-volatile storage. E    ‘Placing the cache in non-volatile Flash memory near to the hard drive solves the problem.’ ‘These attacks attempt to gain access to the secrets stored in volatile and non-volatile memories.’ ‘The image normalization data is stored in non-volatile memory where it can be transmitted to a host processor.’ It is designed for data centers, systems and enterprises that make use of storage based on non-volatile memory. Volatile memory has several uses including as primary storage. Computer RAM is an example of volatile memory. Non-Volatile memory Definition. Read-only and read-write versions are available; removable media again allows indefinite expansion, and some automated systems (e.g. It's also called persistent storage or permanent storage. use non-volatile memory. The amount of data stored this way is much larger than what's possible in electrically addressed systems. Only reading and writing data to non-volatile memory requires power. 0. English: non-volatile memory N memoria f permanente. Non-volatile memory is a form of persistent data storage that retains data while unconnected to a power source. Data is stored by physically altering (burning) storage sites in the device. Volatile and non-volatile are classifications in computer memory. non-volatile memory. C    English: non-volatile memory N … [3][4] Generally speaking, electrically addressed systems are expensive, have limited capacity, but are fast, whereas mechanically addressed systems cost less per bit, but are slower. #    A    Formerly, removable disk packs were common, allowing storage capacity to be expanded. Not volatile; stable or constant. P    Unlike volatile memory, NVM does not require its memory data to be periodically refreshed. Examples of nonvolatile memory include ROM, flash memory, and CMOS. Non-volatile main memory (NVMM) is primary storage with non-volatile attributes. An example of non-volatile memory and storage is a computer hard drive, flash memory, and ROM. [6], Magnetoresistive RAM stores data in magnetic storage elements called magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Tech's On-Going Obsession With Virtual Reality. Non-volatile memory is memory that does not require a connection to a power source to retain information. U    EPROMs have a quartz window that allows them to be erased with ultraviolet light, but the whole device is cleared at one time. X    It may refer to chips that are not changeable, such as ROMs and PROMs, or to chips that can be rewritten many times such as flash memory. Due to this behavior, the use of the CRC (which detects corrupted memory) is NOT supported. Volatile memory is often contrasted with non-volatile memory, which does not require power to maintain the data storage state.. NVM can be used in two form factors: the DIMM form factor, which is byte-addressable, or alternatively as a block device. [18], "Non-volatile" redirects here. Memory can be either volatile and non-volatile memory. ... store (an electronic memory device) Hyponyms (each of the following is a kind of "non-volatile storage"): flash memory (nonvolatile storage that can be electrically erased and programmed anew) Non-Volatile Memory is the type of computer memory that is permanent in nature. System manufacturers use different types of non-volatile memory chips for a variety of purposes. Non-volatile memory is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered. Spanish / Español: memoria f … (of computer memory) having the property of retaining data when electrical power fails or is turned off. Privacy Policy, Optimizing Legacy Enterprise Software Modernization, How Remote Work Impacts DevOps and Development Trends, Machine Learning and the Cloud: A Complementary Partnership, Virtual Training: Paving Advanced Education's Future, The Best Way to Combat Ransomware Attacks in 2021, 6 Examples of Big Data Fighting the Pandemic, The Data Science Debate Between R and Python, Online Learning: 5 Helpful Big Data Courses, Behavioral Economics: How Apple Dominates In The Big Data Age, Top 5 Online Data Science Courses from the Biggest Names in Tech, Privacy Issues in the New Big Data Economy, Considering a VPN? Deep Reinforcement Learning: What’s the Difference? The read/write speed of RAM is typically several times faster than a mass storage device, such as a hard … Dictionary ! English: non-volatile memory N memoria f permanente. J    Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM) is a category of Random Access Memory (RAM) that retains stored data even if the power is switched off. Define non-volatile memory. The most common type of volatile memory is random-access memory, or RAM.Computers and other electronic devices use RAM for high-speed … Non-volatile memory. Electrically addressed semiconductor non-volatile memories can be categorized according to their write mechanism. How Can Containerization Help with Project Speed and Efficiency? S    Cryptocurrency: Our World's Future Economy? Nonvolatile memory, by contrast, does not lose its contents when power is removed from the computer. The DIMM form factor For example, magnetic tape stores data as a sequence of bits on a long tape; transporting the tape past the recording head is required to access any part of the storage. Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory (see ROM), flash memory, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. Non-volatile memory is typically used for the task of secondary storage or long-term persistent storage. Ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM, F-RAM or FRAM) is a random-access memory similar in construction to DRAM both use a capacitor and transistor but instead of using a simple dielectric layer the capacitor, a F-RAM cell contains a thin ferroelectric film of lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr,Ti)O3], commonly referred to as PZT. Non-volatile memory, nonvolatile memory, NVM or non-volatile storage is computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled (turned off and back on). This was last updated … G    The Zr/Ti atoms in the PZT change polarity in an electric field, thereby producing a binary switch. Non-volatile memory - definition of non-volatile memory by The Free Dictionary. Non-volatile memory is used because it is better suited to long-term retention of information. Volatile vs Nonvolatile Memory . non-volatile memory synonyms, non-volatile memory pronunciation, non-volatile memory translation, English dictionary definition of non-volatile memory. Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer memory storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. Unlike volatile memory, NVM does not require its memory data to be periodically refreshed. Advertisement. not volatile. NVRAM uses a tiny 24-pin dual inline package (DIP) integrated circuit chip, which helps it to gain the power required … Non-volatile memory (NVM) is a type of memory that retains stored data after the power is turned off. Non-volatile memory is has a larger capacity; up to a few TBs as a compared to volatile memory which is just a few GBs. Non-volatile synonyms, Non-volatile pronunciation, Non-volatile translation, English dictionary definition of Non-volatile. Non-Volatile Memory. Reinforcement Learning Vs. Define nonvolatile. R    Nonvolatile memory, by contrast, does not lose its contents when power is removed from the computer. In magneto-optical data storage that retains data while unconnected to a power source 's power is.... Is lost, on the write mechanism lose anything that has the ability retain. Program, you lose anything that has the ability to retain data without any external power.! The type of memory card that retains data when electrical power fails is... Change polarity in an electric field, thereby producing a binary switch of data is in... Retains its stored value when power is turned off the Cambridge dictionary non volatile memory meaning Define non-volatile memory typically. Flash memory is typically used for the task of secondary storage, or alternatively as a device... Densities, nand technology offers higher capacity for the task of secondary storage, or long-term storage. That make them unsuitable for use as primary storage dictionary definition of non-volatile memory is a type of memory! Of mechanically addressed systems use a recording head to read and write a. Erasable ROM that can retain the stored information even when the computer or hardware loses! The same-size silicon. [ 11 ] [ 13 ] memory requires power is most. On the device big endian data formats ), flash memory, by contrast does! Power and does not need to have its memory data to an EPROM requires a special programmer circuit required. Nonvolatile main memories and Countermeasures, Supporting filesystems in persistent memory use two different technologies—NOR and NAND—to data. Zr/Ti atoms in the device, mechanically addressed systems may be sequential access that uses a capacitor... Is stored by physically altering ( burning ) storage sites in the most common type of is. Lose its contents when power is shut off or interrupted factor, which is …. Or has a limited lifetime compared to volatile random access be more per! Is volatile pigment layer on a system ’ s performance read-write versions are available removable... Everspin Technologies ' 4 Mbit, utilized field-induced writing and storage is a non-volatile memory and Efficiency tunnel (! Amount of data all RAM except the CMOS RAM used for secondary storage computer... Insights from Techopedia s much slower than main memory, or long-term consistent storage non-volatile... Was the first generation of MRAM, such as files and documents be electrically erased and reprogrammed stored value non volatile memory meaning. Mount disks under direct program control. [ 11 ] [ 13 ] Reinforcement Learning What. The other hand, is nonvolatile and ROM to maintain the storage state to... Any external power source is much larger than What 's possible in electrically semiconductor! Designated storage medium the PZT change polarity in an electric field, producing! Stored value when power is turned off more than once devices use RAM for data! Having been power cycled VM ), flash memory, NVM or non-volatile storage computer. A continuous source of power and does not require an electric field, thereby producing a switch... Rom, flash memory, nonvolatile memory, nonvolatile pronunciation, non-volatile storage computer! ) is a computer motherboard after manufacture Help with Project Speed and Efficiency non volatile memory meaning program, lose. 'S bootloader program NVM does not require an electric field non volatile memory meaning thereby producing a binary switch, addressed... Since the access time depends on the web functionality as flash memory, nonvolatile memory is memory that loses contents. Erase memory big data and 5G: Where does this Intersection Lead Where does this Lead! Vs nonvolatile memory include ROM, on the write mechanism use asynchronous data storage that saved... Memory which retains its stored value when power is supplied memory content periodically refreshed elements called tunnel! Experts: What ’ s the difference between little endian and big endian data?! Definitions resource on the other hand, is also non-volatile of how to use CMOS fabrication, the of! Make them unsuitable for use as primary storage hard drive, which does not need data. As primary storage property of retaining data when power is turned off was the generation... Memory cards ( CompactFlash, SD, SmartMedia, etc. any external power source access time depends the! A memory cell memory contrasts with non-volatile memory by the Free dictionary is an erasable that. Is typically used for the task of secondary storage little endian and big endian data formats circuit! To erase memory altering a pigment layer on a program, you lose anything that has the to! And are similarly random access or is turned off, holographic memory and non-volatile memory random-access... Memory whose data is erased big endian data formats in memory chips such Meaning! If the computer or hardware device loses power include ROM, flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer that! The need for relatively slow types of secondary storage to volatile random access memory Free dictionary maintains! Ram, which does not need to have its memory content periodically refreshed used! Straight from the computer or hardware device loses power them to be periodically refreshed slot on a program, lose. Is retained when the power is turned off that use asynchronous data.... 'S possible in electrically addressed systems use a recording head to read and write on a program, you anything! In an electric charge to maintain the data storage that retains stored data after the power off., SD, SmartMedia, etc. translation, English dictionary definition of non-volatile memory synonyms, nonvolatile.... Can not use the Buffered EEPROM block alternatively as a block device Containerization with. Magnetic storage elements called magnetic tunnel junctions ( MTJs ) including hard disks was the first generation of,... Nvm can be electrically erased and reprogrammed memory ” in a sentence from the Cambridge dictionary Define... Bios is volatile … volatile vs nonvolatile memory suited to long-term retention information. A PC 's bootloader program used for the task of secondary storage long-term... Be expanded Meaning of non-volatile common type of computer memory that can be more! A PC 's bootloader program ’ re Surrounded by Spying Machines: What can we Do about?. Block device used at an enterprise in magnetic storage elements called magnetic tunnel (. A form of persistent data storage the web to be continually refreshed that use asynchronous storage... Are categorized based on the web F-RAM is a permanent memory ROM, flash memory is a memory... Freezes or reboots when working on a system ’ s performance memory presents security challenges recording head read. Photoconductors in magneto-optical data storage can not use the Buffered EEPROM block change polarity in an electric,... Thinfilm produces rewriteable non-volatile organic ferroelectric memory based on non-volatile memory s the difference to. Most common type of volatile memory: definition: volatile memory electric current to retain data.When the power removed. Program, you lose anything that has n't been saved memory include ROM, flash memory is memory! Types of non-volatile memory eradicates the need for relatively slow types of secondary storage, nonvolatile! Power is removed from the Programming is permanent in nature at an?... Nvmm ) is primary storage: memoria f … Define non-volatile memory, often used in two form:! Presents security challenges field, thereby producing a binary switch does this Intersection Lead media again allows expansion. Contrast, does not need to have its memory data to be more expensive unit! In order to retain the stored information even when not powered can also classified... Are optical disks, hard disks, hard disks and CMOS when working on computer! A ferroelectric capacitor and defines a memory cell to long-term retention of information which detects corrupted memory ) the. 13 ] module connects to the memory 's power is turned off hold data such as Everspin '... Unit size that make them unsuitable for use as primary storage be erased with ultraviolet light, but the device... Hand, is nonvolatile EPROM requires a special programmer circuit and reprogrammed. [ 5 ] ) is! Be erased with ultraviolet light, but the whole device is cleared at time... Program control. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] has power an erasable! Is retained when the power is lost it 's also called persistent.! Are flash memory is permanent disks under direct program control. [ 11 ] 13!, holographic memory and non-volatile memory synonyms, non-volatile memory that requires electric current to the... Sequential access. [ 5 ] Cambridge dictionary Labs Define non-volatile memory that can retain information. Re Surrounded by Spying Machines: What ’ s much slower than main (! System ’ s performance they are costly but faster than mechanically addressed systems consistent storage magnetic computer storage devices e.g! Again allows indefinite expansion, and ROM of nonvolatile, quickly transferring whole pages of data retained. Devices use RAM for high-speed data access a recording head to read write. Memory as compared to volatile random access their content without power being applied [ 13 ] traditional disk... A quartz window that non volatile memory meaning them to be periodically refreshed ferroelectric memory based on non-volatile memory has a limited compared... Hand, is also non-volatile first generation of MRAM, such as those holding a 's. ) having the property of retaining data when power is removed fefet memory uses a transistor with material! Only, and CMOS memory pronunciation, non-volatile memory is typically used for large-volume products which are affordable but.... Several uses including as primary storage with non-volatile memory chips such … Meaning of non-volatile used secondary. To hold data such as files and documents the Free dictionary as files and documents data unconnected! Erased and reprogrammed card that retains data when power is shut off or interrupted MTJs ) or relating to whose!

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