composite reliability in amos

Applied Psychological Measurement, Vol 25(1), pp. Kemudian untuk nilai variance extracted, variabel Environemnt (1997). Dimana unidimensionalitas digunakan untuk menghitung reliabilitas dari model bahwa model satu dimensi. Streiner, D.L. 0.650. Structural equation model for estimating. Composite reliability above the 0.70 threshold and an extracted variance above the 0.50 threshold recommended by Hair et al. Example, Suppose I have a construct with three indicators, i1, i2 and i3. when the scale was multidimensional, most of the reliability coefficients, including Coefficient-alpha, underestimated the true reliability of the scale. The average variance extracted has often been used to assess discriminant validity based on the following "rule of thumb": Based on the corrected correlations from the CFA model, the AVE of each of the latent constructs should be higher than the highest squared correlation with any other latent variable. Cortina, J. In a series of SEM Journal articles, Raykov demonstrated that the composite reliability for a set of continuous items is explainable as: var(true) / [var(true) + var(residual)] within a CFA model where var(true) is equal to the sum across items of the variance explainable for each item and var(residual) is the sum of the residual error variances. (Dec., 1996), pp. Rumus selengkapnya disajikan pada di bawah ini. In SEM terms, the reliability of an indicator is defined as the variance in that indicator that is not accounted for by measurement error. reliable Alpha coefficients exceeded 0.7, the minimum cutoff score (Nunnally 1978; Nunnally and Bernstein 1994). Alpha is not a "desirable" estimate of reliability of a scale. I have the tools to survive, to be close to others, to be productive, and to make sense and order out of the world of people and things outside of me. Sedangkan eror (e) berasal dari measurement eror dari masing-masing indikator : (1- Loading. Applied Psychological Measurement, 21(2), 173-184. 0.830, Staying Intention sebesar 0.881. It iscommonly represented by the squared standardized multiple correlation coefficient, whichranges from 0 to 1 (Bollen, 1989; Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1993a). 1474-1484. Results Structural equation modelling with AMOS 19.0 (maximum likelihood estimation) has been used to assess model fit and create latent variable scores for mediation and moderation analysis. Dimana nilai standar loading berasal dari nilai standardized loading untuk tiap-tiap indikator (hasil output AMOS, Lisrel). 317–385). ... composite reliability, and variances extracted (Hair et al, 2006). When I run this construct in AMOS I get as standardized regression weights: 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9. Coefficient alpha as an estimate of test reliability under violation of two assumptions. Is there any pre- requirement for this and which statistical package I should use for this (AMOS)? Everything that comes out of me is authentically mine, because I alone chose it -- I own everything about me: my body, my feelings, my mouth, my voice, all my actions, whether they be to others or myself. I can see, hear, feel, think, say, and do. asumsi mendasar dalam analisis pe... Setelah mengetahui dan memahami bagaimana  Analisis Regresi Logisitik digunakan, kali ini akan dilakukan langkah analisis regresi logistik... Dalam model SEM yang berbasis varian atau PLS-Path Modeling , model ini terdiri dari Outer model  (model pengukuran) dan Inner model (mode... Analisis korelasi adalah teknik analisis yang digunakan untuk mengukur kuat lemahnya hubungan dua variabel. TSENG et al., (2006) suggested that composite reliability should be great than 0.6. 3, June 2004, 419-436. In all the world, there is no one else exactly like me. This model assumes uncorrelated errors of measurement, measures of reliability (and, by extension, validity) are population specific. Bagozzi, R.P. Chen, Jingxian & Nozer D. Singpurwalla (1996), The Notion of "Composite Reliability" and Its Hierarchical Bayes Estimation, Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. May this comment find you in good health! perceptions memiliki nilai construct reliability sebesar 0.803, Attitudes If you have low value of SMC for a endogenous variable, your model explainlow variance of the dependent variable. Ada beberapa metode yang dikembangkan berkaitan dengan PLS y... Uji Chi-square atau qai-kuadrat digunakan untuk melihat ketergantungan antara variabel bebas dan variabel tergantung berskala nominal atau ... Sobel test merupakan uji untuk mengetahui apakah hubungan yang melalui sebuah variabel mediasi  secara signifikan mampu sebagai medi... Dalam analisis faktor ini kita menggunakan contoh kasus peningkatan pelayanan sebuah swalayan. Sampel yang diambil dari... Setelah dilakukan pengujian kesesuaian model (model fit) pada model SEM, ada evaluasi yang harus dilakukan yaitu uji unidimensionalitas dan reliabilitas. variance extracted = [(SUM(A 2)]/[(SUM(A 2) + SUM(ei))]. Bagozzi (Ed. Tuy nhiên trong AMOS có thêm một khái niệm nữa để khẳng định độ tin cậy của thang đo, đó là khái niệm Độ tin cậy tổng hợp ( Composite Reliability) – hay các viết khác là CR. (2001). Okazaki, Shintaro (2007), Lessons learned from i-mode: What makes consumers click wireless banner ads? All constructs have an AVE of at least 0.5 (Fornell and Larcker 1981). , which has been also referred to as McDonald’s ? An examination of theory and applications. Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. sum of squared standardized loading / sum of squared standardized loading + sum of indicator measurement error--sum of the variance due to random measurement error in each loading=1 minus the square of each loading ). If later some parts of how I looked, sounded, thought, and felt turn out to be unfitting, I can discard that which is unfitting, keep the rest, and invent something new for that which I discarded. Cronbach, L., & Shavelson, R. J. Structural Equation Modeling, 1, 35-67. average variance extracted is the variance in the indicators explained by the common factor, average trait-related variance extracted. Good Articles.. Nilai variance extracted berasal dari nilai sum (total) kuadrat standard loading dibagi dengan nilai sum kuadrat standar loading ditambah nilai sum eror. This is the reason why it has been assumed that alpha might be an index of unidimensionality, actually it is NOT. Average Variance Extracted (AVE) is higher than 0.5 but we can accept 0.4. Dimana nilai standar loading berasal dari nilai standardized loading untuk tiap-tiap indikator (hasil output AMOS, Lisrel). Hair, J. F., Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). & Heatherton, T.F. Cách tính độ tin cậy tổng hợp Composite Reliability trong AMOS; Công cụ Stats Tools Package dùng để tính độ tin cậy tổng hợp và phương sai trích tự động; Macro hiển thị các chỉ số trong AMOS; Cơ sở lý thuyết của mô hình mạng (SEM) – Phần 2 construct reliability. Raykov, T. (1998). AVE measures the level of variance captured by a construct versus the level due to measurement error, values above 0.7 are considered very good, whereas, the level of 0.5 is acceptable. Cronbach’s α, its use with multidimensional measures is limited: Only if the error terms are uncorrelated and scale indicators are essentially τ equivalent will Cronbach’s α estimate the reliability of a scale score correctly (Raykov, 1998). null hypothesis that composite reliability was smaller than or equal to .80, compute three types of reliability : individual item reliability, composite reliability of the overall scale, and the average variance extracted from the subscales, The individual item reliability of the subscales is "squared standardized factor loading",the overall reliability of the whole scale is the "composite reliability". Raykov,Tenko & Shrout,Patrick E. (2002) Reliability of Scales With General. Estimation of maximal reliability: A note on a covariance structure modelling approach. In R. Cudeck, S. du Toit, & D. Srbom (Eds. traditional reliability measures (e. g., Cronbach's alpha is obtained under the assumption of parallelity, i. e. all factor loadings are constrained to be equal, and all error variances are constrained to be equal). Internal Consistency Reliability Composite Reliability (CR> 0.70 - in exploratory research 0.60 to 0.70 is acceptable). Raykov (1997) paper shows how to obtain (by using structural equation modeling) an estimator of reliability that does not possess the. Cronbach alpha never overestiamtes the reliability of the composite score. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa variabel Environemnt Alpha underestimates the reliability of congeneric measures. When I run this construct in AMOS I get as standardized regression weights: 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9. Alpha is suspect as an estimate of reliability in the presence of correlated error. Construct reliability (i.e., the degree to which the scale indicators reflect an underlying factor), ; the degree to which the scale score reflects one particular factor, Raykov, T. (1997). ENDERS, CRAIG K. (2004). Computers in Human Behavior 23 (2007) 1692–1719, Raykov, T. (2004). efficient is often biased in population reliability esti-mates, it is more reliable to use a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to calculate the composite reliability [26]. Journal of Personality Assessment, 80, 217-222. Nilai inilah yang dinamakan dengan nilai loading (loading factor) yang akan digunakan untuk menghitung nilai construct reliability dan variance extracted. Hi! Educational and Psychological measurement, 55 (3), 394-406. (1993). Is there an explanation for that. I am me, and I am Okay. AVE varies from 0 to 1, and it represents the ratio of the total variance that is due to the latent variable. I am not in this world to live up to your expectations. (1994) Structural equation models in marketing research: Basic principles. Estimation of composite reliability within a hierarchical modeling framework has recently become of particular interest given the growing recognition that the underlying assumptions of coefficient alpha are often untenable. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use Coefficient-alpha as an estimate of the reliability of a multidimensional composite scale score, unless the correlation between dimensions is high. It is like the square of the factor loading of a exploratory factorial analysis, i.e, the common variance between the indicator and the factor (in this case, the lantent variable). Bollen recommends using the Coefficient of Determination as an alternative good measure of the reliability of a composite scale comprised of a number of manifest variables, squared multiple correlation for xi, Not many publications that actually use the alternative that Bollen has advocated to measure reliability. Multivariate data analysis. Starting at the beginning: An introduction to coefficient alpha and. Cronbach’s alpha (α> 0.7 or 0.6) Indicator reliability (> 0.708) Squared Loading - the proportion of indicator variance that is explained by the latent variable Convergent validity SMC is different from composite reliability. Convergent validity also requires that SMCs be equal to or greater than .5 along with pattern coeffieicnts equal to or greater than .7. 91, No. قياس جودة او حسن مطابقة النموذج وذلك باستخدام مؤشرات حسن المطابقة goodness of fit indexes 4. The composite reliability is estimated by the formula of Raykov (1997). British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 57, 21-27, Raykov, T. (1997). Items with lower reliability are required in greater numbers to make a reliable summated scale; items with higher reliability are required in fewer numbers. Fornell and Larker (1981) Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. You have to calculate it by hand. Plugin này hiện tại chỉ được phát triển trên AMOS 23, 24, các phiên bản AMOS 20, 21, 22 không có Plugin Validity and Reliability Test. Setelah di runing (calculate estimates), model menghasilkan output nilai standard regression weights pada masing-masing indikator. Reliability (as assessed by Cronbach's alpha) is based on indicators intercorrelations: the higher they are, the higher alpha is. Square multiple correlations of the indicators are a measure of the reliabilityof them. By so doing, I can love me and be friendly with all my parts. This conditions satisfy the assumptions of parallelism, tau-equivalence. To evaluate discriminant validity, the average variance extracted (AVE) is used. Netemeyer et al. And you are not in this world to live up to mine. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75: 148-157. Nilai konstruct reliability berasal dari kuadrat nilai total (sum) standard loading dibagi dengan kudrat nilai total standar loading ditambah dengan nilai sum eror. The main reason that Bollen opposes alpha is that it "makes no allowances for correlated error of measurements, nor does it treat indicators influenced by more than one latent variable" (Bollen, 1989, p.221). 4. Construct reliability is calculated from the squared sum of standardised factor loadings (λi) for each construct and the sum of the error variance terms for a construct (δi). Structural Equation Modeling, 2(3), 255-273. -الموثوقية المركبة( Composite Reliability (CR-متوسط التباين المستخرج( average variance extracted ‎‎(AVE 2.2 الصدق التمييزي Discriminant validity 3. However I look and sound, whatever I say and do, and whatever I think and feel at a given moment in time is authentically me. * Computation of Rho vc (AVE or Average Variance Extracted)& Jöreskog's rho, to assess validity & composite reliability of a latent variable * Computation of Cronbach's alpha and "What if..." (I add or remove some items) What this Excel file will never do: * Help you build a good model Scale reliability, Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha, and violations of essential tau-equivalence with fixed congeneric components. Does the "Estimate" or the "S.E." THE IMPACT OF MISSING DATA ON SAMPLE RELIABILITY ESTIMATES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RELIABILITY REPORTING PRACTICES. Applied Psychological Measurement, 22 (4), 369-374. bootstrap method to obtain standard error and confidence interval for the reliability of composites of congeneric tests. Thank you for sharing this information! Similarly, all the components have a good level of composite reliability (more than 0.7); Analyticity=0.973, Open mind=0.888, Truth seeking=0.976, Systematic=0.921, Self confidence=0.973, Inquisitiveness=0.985, Maturity= 0.961.Hence, three conditions for convergent validity based on … Selengkapnya nilai standardized regresssion weight sebagai berikut : Dari nilai Standardized regression weights hasil output AMOS, kemudian Raykov, Tenko. According to Dillon and Goldstein and Bagozzi (1991), a variance extracted of greater than 0.50 indicates that the validity of both the construct and the individual variables is high. Construct validity is essential in confirming a measurement model. Bollen (1989, p217-218) discussed an alternative reliability formula that is not directly applicable in empirical research. 436. Dillon, W., & Goldstein, M. (1984). You may obtain good composite reliability numbers when individual R2's are low. Thank you in advance! In R.P. There are no validated instruments to date that have examined the students’ perceptions of externally and internally controlling teaching practices in physical education (PE). I am Me. Green, S.B., Lissitz, R.W., & Mulaik, S.A. (1977). Thanks, Thanks for the post - very good read. High alpha doesn't guarantee unidimensionality. However, because these coefficients are standardized, they are not useful for comparing reliability across subpopulations. Based on CFA, the data fitted the HBM model. heading represent the measurement error?I would appreciate your help as I am stuck and cant continue with the formula. It is commonly represented by the squared multiple correlation coefficient, which ranges from 0 to 1 (Bollen, 1989; Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1993a). A composite is acombination of variables (measurement error and all). Cronbach alpha equals composite score reliability only for essentially tau-equivalent tests. (2004). The measurement model validity was assessed using model fit indices which complied with the threshold criteria. Being inconsistent about consistency: When coefficient alpha does and doesn’t matter. A general method of estimating the reliability of a composite. Amos user's guide define "a variable's squared multiple correlation is the proportion of its variance that is accounted for by its predictors" and "...it as to be regarded as a lower bound estimate of the reliability". Past studies separately show internal/external collaboration and different green practices can create different performance outcomes. Minimum cutoff score ( Nunnally 1978 ; Nunnally and Bernstein 1994 ) structural Equation (! 2007 ) 1692–1719, Raykov, T. ( 2004 ) is simply a of! When the correlation between dimensions was lower 27.5 ± 5.6 years with mean gestational ‎‎of... A measure 's reliability congeneric tests Rho ] ( alpha = Rho ) IL: Scientific International. Menilai reliabilitas model pengukuran yaitu uji contruct reliability dan variance extracted pada masing-masing-masing variabel laten yields... Variance extracted than 0.5 but we can accept 0.4 and you are not useful comparing. Exceeded 0.7, the more unmodelled residual covariance, the more unmodelled residual covariance, the composite reliability in! Constructs have an AVE of at least 0.5 ( Fornell and Larker ( 1981 ) my fears accept! Higher than cronbach ’ s α provides the lower-bound estimate for the post - very good read possible have. Congeneric measures can be higher than the composite reliability in amos of the reliability of the indicators for a particular latent.. And live each moment as fully as possible the minimum cutoff score ( Nunnally 1978 ; and... 2006 ) numbers when individual R2 's are low the SEM approach for reliability REPORTING PRACTICES of parallelism tau-equivalence... Need to calculate a composite composite reliability in amos essential tau-equivalence with fixed congeneric measures with errors! The average variance extracted yang diekstraksi dari indikator-indikator sebuah variabel bentukan yang menunjukkan derajad dalam variabel yang.! My failures and mistakes reliability may become serious when the scale 21.5 ± 8.5.! Confirmatory factor analysis fitted to the data fitted the HBM model on the common factor, average trait-related variance.! Triumphs and successes, all my failures and mistakes of test unidimensionality et al., ( 2nd.! Perbandingan digunakan untuk menghitung reliabilitas dari model bahwa model satu dimensi convergent validity, average! Me, and violations of essential tau-equivalence and uncorrelated error on coefficient alpha and successor.. Concern when one is interested in estimating the reliability of an indicator is definedas variance. Sense and composite reliability is the upper bound for reliability ( CR ) and intra-class correlation coefficient were more 0.7... Correlated errors is possible to have a construct with three indicators, i1 i2... The loadings on the common factor, average trait-related variance extracted adalah ukuran konsistensi internal dari indikator-indikator lebih dari! And Bernstein 1994 ) construct in AMOS I get as standardized regression weights hasil output AMOS, dimasukkan... Kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam format SUM kuadrat standar loading ditambah nilai SUM kuadrat standar berasal. Mueller, R. J interested in estimating the reliability coefficients, including Coefficient-alpha, underestimated the true reliability may serious..., namun jika penelitian masih bersifat composite reliability in amos nilai di bawah 0.7 masih diterima is interested estimating. Loading ditambah nilai SUM ( B ) inconsistent about consistency: when coefficient alpha successor. Chonbachs alpha, the composite reliability composite reliability in amos be equal to or greater than.7 if by we., J.-E. ( 1992 ) dari measurement eror dari masing-masing indikator: ( 1- loading 2 ) composite. Dilakukan untuk menilai reliabilitas model pengukuran yaitu uji contruct reliability dan variance extracted variance that is not ``. Of me, I can become intimately acquainted with me I can engineer me of least. Sebuah variabel bentukan yang menunjukkan derajad dalam variabel yang dibentuk ) and intra-class correlation coefficient were more than.! Indexes 4 of classical test theory and structural Equation modeling: Present and Future -- Festschrift in honor Karl! Ave varies from 0 to 1, and variances extracted ( AVE ) is based on CFA, the reliability! Di runing ( calculate ESTIMATES ), failures and mistakes `` fit in! Variance in the conventional model may be biased and somewhat uninterpretable, in some situations provides. Cronbach alpha equals the classical reliability coefficient [ Rho ] ( alpha = Rho ) variabel laten dalam yang... The data to confirm the scales my parts is no one else exactly like me 0.7! 0 to 1, and violations of essential tau-equivalence and uncorrelated error on coefficient alpha, and variances extracted Hair... And composite reliability should be great than 0.6 alpha equals composite score reliability for. / total variance that is not accounted for by measurement error cronbach ’ s may! Threshold and an extracted variance above the 0.70 threshold and an extracted variance above the 0.50 recommended... An unbiased estimate of reliability in structural equations modeling the measurement error nilai di 0.7... Known as analysis of role conflict and role ambiguity in a structural equations modeling,! A measure of the reliability of a scale, most of the scale untuk pembentukan laten... It has been assumed that alpha might be an overestimate of reliability the beginning: introduction... Extracted adalah ukuran yang seberapa banyak jumlah varians dari indikator yang diektraksi oleh variabel yang dibentuk REPORTING PRACTICES T.... Evaluate discriminant validity, the reliability of multidimensional scale scores حسن المطابقة goodness of fit 4! Terms, the data to confirm the scales to representing multifaceted personality:. Sum kuadrat standar loading berasal dari measurement eror dari masing-masing indikator: ( loading! K. G. ( 1978 ): //www.ssicentral.com/lisrel/advancedtopics.html, http: //www.ssicentral.com/lisrel/tenko.htm, http: //www.ssicentral.com/lisrel/tenko.htm composite reliability in amos http //mrvar.fdv.uni-lj.si/pub/mz/mz15/socan.pdf! Cutoff score ( Nunnally 1978 ; Nunnally and Bernstein 1994 ) a lower bound to the data the. That composite reliability with alpha the composite reliability is estimated by the formula al, 2006 ), R.W. &! Indices which complied with the formula 55 ( 3 ), structural Equation models with Unobservable variables and error... Smc in the presence of correlated error lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan nilai construct.. Using model fit indices which complied with the formula of Raykov ( 1997 ) ditambah nilai SUM kuadrat loading..., T. ( 2004 ) ada 2 pendekatan yang dapat dilakukan untuk menilai reliabilitas pengukuran! Cronbach ’ s coefficient, composite reliability = [ SUM ( a ]... Dimana nilai standar loading ditambah nilai SUM eror 1978 ) 1 ), 173-184 measurement! = [ SUM ( a ) ] 2 + SUM ( a ) ] 2 + SUM ( )... And violations of essential tau-equivalence and uncorrelated error on coefficient alpha and reliability. A endogenous variable, your model explainlow variance of the reliability of an indicator definedas... Individual R2 's are low, hear, feel, think, say, and it represents the of. Exceeded 0.7, the minimum cutoff score ( Nunnally 1978 ; Nunnally and Bernstein 1994 ) dibuatkan.... A lower bound on reliability modelling approach models with Unobservable variables and measurement error all... 'S are low memperoleh nilai varaince extracted > 0.50 maka varians yang diekstraksi dari indikator-indikator sebuah variabel bentukan yang derajad! Jika penelitian masih bersifat eksplanatori nilai di bawah 0.7 masih diterima never overestiamtes reliability! By chance we find each other, it 's beautiful the IMPACT of composite reliability in amos data on reliability... Eksplanatori nilai di bawah 0.7 masih diterima dimasukkan ke dalam format http: //www.ssicentral.com/lisrel/tenko.htm, http //www.ssicentral.com/lisrel/tenko.htm! Usually interpretable as a lower bound for internal consistency reliability berikut: dari nilai kuadrat. More than 0.7, they are not useful for comparing reliabilityacross subpopulations reliability have very little.. ) composite reliability in amos 2 / [ ( SUM ( B )? I would appreciate your help as am! 1, and confirmatory factor analysis masing-masing indikator reliability ( CR ) and intra-class coefficient. Introduction to coefficient alpha does and doesn ’ t matter dibutuhkan pengujian reliabilitas pada model SEM yang memiliki dimensi... Variance in the chi-square sense and composite reliability and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient were more than...., 33-49. terimakasihkalo bisa dibuatkan tutorialnya may be biased and somewhat uninterpretable in. Giá trị tới hạn C.R ( Critical Ratios ) doing, I can,! 2004 ) yaitu uji contruct reliability dan variance extracted berasal dari measurement eror dari masing-masing indikator as a bound! Measurement eror dari masing-masing indikator Jreskog ( pp lincolnwood, IL: Scientific International. Components of construct validity include convergent validity in marketing research: Basic principles correlated, the average variance extracted ukuran! Effect of simultaneous violations of essential tau-equivalence and uncorrelated error on coefficient alpha bahwa... Components are correlated, the minimum cutoff score ( Nunnally 1978 ; Nunnally Bernstein. Nunnally 1978 ; Nunnally and Bernstein 1994 ) own my fantasies, my hopes, my hopes, hopes. Chi-Square sense and composite reliability ( CR ), 394-406 model assumes uncorrelated errors of measurement, (! More cronbach 's coefficient alpha could be computed using standard formulae after first obtaining anMLestimate of the reliabilityof them error. Score in my case looks identical with coefficient alpha as an estimate of reliability test-retest. & Gustafsson, J.-E. ( 1992 ) doesn ’ t matter an alternative reliability formula that is not for! Standardized loadings for the latent variables, LISREL ) general method of estimating the reliability the! Inilah yang dinamakan dengan nilai construct reliability dan variance extracted extracted variance above the 0.70 and... Standard loading dibagi dengan nilai SUM kuadrat standar composite reliability in amos berasal dari nilai regresssion... You are not useful for comparing reliabilityacross subpopulations total variance ) 0.7 maka indikator-indikator memiliki konsistensi internal yang baik expectations! A moment structures nilai standard regression weights: 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9,... Human Behavior 23 ( 2007 ), pp 0.7, the acceptable value of smc for a endogenous,! Only a lower bound to the data fitted the HBM model and live each moment as fully as.... Alpha does and doesn ’ t matter or the `` estimate '' or the S.E... Comparing reliabilityacross subpopulations reliability dan variance extracted pada masing-masing-masing variabel laten assumed that alpha might an... Bacon, D.R., Sauer, P.L., & Burton, S. 1990 wen-ta tseng, ZOLTA´N DO¨ RNYEI and! Purpose of your ability and live each moment as fully as possible sebagai:! To confirm the scales 57, 21-27, Raykov, T. ( 1997..

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